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The Science of Electrics

When using electrical treatments with clients, it’s important to know the difference between the currents and frequencies used. While qualified therapists will know the science behind the treatments. Clients sometimes want to be pointed somewhere to find out a little more in-depth into how and why it works. We’ve created this post which you can share with your clients who are a little more curious about the science.

Electrical Properties – Atoms

Structure of an atom:

An atom is the building block of all matter, whether that is solid, liquid or even gas.

Atoms are made up of three particles:

  • Protons p+ (positive charge)
  • Neutrons n0 (no charge)
  • Electrons e (negative charge & orbit around the nucleus)

Electrons can:

Be added to the atom, or lost from the atom, which causes the atoms to become particles with an electrical charge. These are called IONS.

ION Properties;

  • Atoms with NO electrical charge. Same number of protons and electrons.
  • ANION – Atom gains an electron, and causes the atom to take on a negative charge (negative ion).
  • CATION – Atom loses an electron, which means there are more protons than electrons, so the atom becomes a positive ion.

Ions can also interact with each other;

  • Ions of the same charge are repelled by each other.
  • Ions of different charges attract each other.

Water and Ions;

  • When an electrical current passes through water containing ions, the ions then move.
  • Anions (-) are attracted to the positive electrode called the anode.
  • Cations (+) are attracted to the negative electrode called the cathode.

Electrical Current

When an electrical current flows through a metal wire, electrons flow from atom to atom through the metal.

The flow of electrons through the wire between the electrical supply and the electrical machine/appliance, is called an ELECTRICAL CURRENT.



Volts / Mains Supply is 240 Volts in UK.
(W and KW)

Ohms (Ω)

Hertz (Hz)

Electrical State

Rate of Flow of Electric Current

Pressure causing the current to flow around the electrical circuit.

Electrical resistance needed to transfer the electrical energy. Resistance is reduced via a conductor of electricity

Mains electricity is alternating current (AC). It moves back and forth. Alternates 5 times per second. Known as a frequency of 50 cycles per second.


Materials which are good conductors of electricity. Examples are;

  • The Human Body (contains conducting properties).
  • Water.
  • Saline Solutions.
  • Metals.


Insulators don’t conduct electricity well (does not flow) and inhibit or break the circuit. Examples are;

  • Rubber.
  • Plastic.
  • Polystyrene.
  • Oil.
  • Wood.
  • Plastic.


Helps to protect the appliance/gadget from too much current. The wire in the fuse will melt, and breaks the current. You may have seen this in the plugs you have at home for your own electrical appliances, often 3 Amp, 5 Amp or 13 Amp fuses, which melt and prevent damage to your gadget/appliance if there is an electrical surge in the current.


Reduces the voltage of the mains supply.


Changes current from A.C to D.C.


Regulates irregularities in the constant stream of electrons to help prevent a surge.

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Salon Policies – Do You Need Them as a Salon or Sole Trader?

Even the smallest sole trader with the tiniest client list needs to have some policies to help them navigate the world of business. It becomes very clear early on that when we deal with the public, some form of rules are needed so that those who work in the service environment aren’t taken advantage of. Everyone can forget the odd appointment, and sometimes, life in general means that a client can be late, but persistent no shows, lates or late cancellations can affect a business, no matter how small it is.

The policies below are simply a guild to what to think about when you are setting out your own salon policies. The list is not exhaustive, and you may decide not to implement others. Every salon requirement is on a need basis.

What are salon policies?

These are a list of your rules. They set out your limits and the procedures you will take for your clients and how they behave towards your business.

These rules help you to organise your work schedules, appointments and calendar, allowing you to work fairly to all your clients and any staff that you employ. If you are self employed, these allow you to help manage your own working environment.

Spend time to reflect on what you will have as part of your salon policies, and how they will affect your business. Policies for mobile working self employed service workers will be different from those who work in a salon, or those who work from home. When you write your policies, make them easy to find, and display some of them on your wall, or on your website, to help your clients and staff maintain safety at work. Make sure your policies are achievable, ie they are realistic and can be followed.

Businesses must tailor their policies to their own needs. What is right for one business will not necessarily be right for another. If you need to, write risk assessments around each aspect of your business and create your policies from those.

Types of Salon Policies

The biggest issue most service industries face as the late arrivals and cancellations. It makes sense to draft and wrote policies that help you manage these situations. There are also different ways of dealing with issues that might come up in relation to how they are worded.

  • We’ve drafted some policies here, and helped with some templates to help navigate these.
  • These are simply templates and suggestions, and are not legally enforceable or guaranteed to stand up in court.
  • You are required to change any text and wording to suit your own needs.
  • We are not liable for your end use of these posts, contents or products.
  • You MUST tailor them to your business to ensure you are legally compliant.
  • Purchase and use of any of our templates, requires you to accept all responsibility for their use, under any circumstances.
  • If you are imposing fines for any of your policies, make sure all your clients know about these in advance. If you change your policies to new ones or change the terms of these policies, also ensure your clients are aware of the new policies you have in place.

Late Arrivals, Cancellations and No Shows

Late Arrivals

Dial down the time you are willing to to wait for a client who is late. You might decide 5 minutes, 15 minutes or 30 minutes is acceptable. If you work client to client with a short interval in-between, you might find 5 minutes is the longest you can wait for a client to arrive. If you work from home, or on your own and have a long lead time between clients, you might decide to give them 15 or 30 minutes. The time you are waiting for a client to arrive, is time you are losing money. Also think about the time you are willing to make you next client wait, if you have someone arriving soon after.

An example statement might include respectfully asking clients to arrive on time for their appointment and outlining arrivals of more than £15 minutes late will result in a cancelled or rescheduled appointment, and a late arrival fee.

Late Cancellations

Late cancellations leaves you with spaces that you cannot fill at short notice and results in reduced earnings for the day. While most businesses can absorb a certain level of late cancellations, it’s reasonable to set out your cancellation policy in advance. If an appointment has been booked for many days/weeks in advance, and is cancelled at short notice, your policy might be different from someone who booked in a last minute slot and cancelled an hour later. Try to work those situations differently where possible.

Think about the time between appointment and cancellation. If you have a 24 hour or 48 hour cancellation policy, it allows clients to cancel close to the appointment time, without charging them. We all understand that life sometimes happens, and our clients have emergencies that require them to reschedule or cancel quite close to the appointment.

In your wording, set out your cancellation policy, ie 24 or 48 hour policy. Also set out your fees chargeable for not cancelling within those timeframes. If it is a same day booking, request notification as close to the appointment as possible. If you set out a cancellation fee, consider how you will collect that. Some businesses will decide to add it to the next appointment if the client books again, and others may allow one or two late cancellations without any fee payable, but will impose it for repeat offenders.


No shows are difficult to work with. Try to remind your clients 24-48 hours before their appointment, to allow them to cancel in time, which might help with client retention. Repeat no shows can affect a business significantly. In these cases, consider a booking fee. You can also outline the fee you will impose as a result of your client not turning up, not cancelling, and offering no explanation for their no show. Some businesses allow one or two no shows, then choose to remove that client from ability to rebook for services.

Patch Test & Health

Patch Test Policy

Every service provider in this industry should have a patch test policy. This comes from a health questionnaire, your insurance requirements and manufacturer recommendations. Wording must always suit your industry. Manufacturers may have recommended patch test requirement that is 48 hours before, but your insurance company may stipulate 24 hours. It is your responsibility to know what is required from both, to decide what your patch test policy will be.

Many insurance providers will require the exact products to be used as a patch test, and any fundamental change in health, including vaccines or having had Covid-19, may require a further patch test required for insurance purposes.

It is not recommended to allow clients to sign a disclaimer as an excuse to avoid a patch test. Your insurance company is very unlikely to accept this.

Your insurance company will also require repeat patch tests after certain time frames. It may be six months, a year or more, so it is wise to check.

Consultation Policy

Every new client to you or your salon, must begin with a health history and consultation. This helps to protect both you and the client. Sometimes, clients wish to have treatments and services that are not safe for them, and by using a consultation, you will be able to find out if it is safe for you to perform that service, or if you will require GP consent, or to modify the treatment to suit. At the beginning of each new appointment, it is important to refer to the health history and check if there are any changes to health, conditions or treatments.

Service Guarantee

This policy outlines your potential route following an unsuccessful treatment. Examples might be a hair colour that turns out green, a perm that does not work, perhaps a lash lift that has no effect, or a nail treatment that is badly performed. For clients who went home with what looks like a satisfactory service, we have to determine if it is a genuine complaint or if the client has not followed their aftercare advice.

Every business and salon will have different ideas and limits of what their service guarantee will cover and how it will be worded.

This is really your quality assurance policy. If that treatment does not work, or your work falls below acceptable standards, you can set out what steps you will take to remedy it in advance. Think about how long a client will have to make a claim. You might require a client to contact your after 24 or 48 hours to allow you to assess the service performance, and decide if you are able to correct the problem or refund the service charge.

Service Policies

Accompanied Clients & Age Restrictions

In the Covid era, restricting accompanied persons to an appointment has become the norm. If you plan to keep that in place, a policy outlining your conditions for that, can help you avoid any potential problems on the day of a service. As part of your terms and conditions of booking, these policies can help you avoid problems on the day.

Things to think about for this policy.

  • For accompanied clients, you may wish to state that a Client who requires assistance may be permitted to be accompanied by a carer or family member to their appointment.
  • Clients who are children, to be accompanied by a parent or guardian.
  • Unsupervised children. You cannot perform a service or treatment properly if you are worried about the safety of an accompanied child running around your salon.
  • Pets. You might decide that service pets such as guide dogs are acceptable.
  • Mobile phones, for example, you do not provide the facility for a client to charge their device. It’s unrealistic to ask a client to not take a mobile phone, but having a written policy asking them to put their phone on silent during their appointment can help reduce the amount of interruptions during a service.
  • Food/Fluid/Alcohol. This was banned during Covid. Some salons will move to providing tea/coffee/water, however, you may need to set your limits on what your clients can bring in with them.

Service Refusal

Offering your services is an invitation to provide a service. It is wise to have a policy outlining your rights to refuse to provide a service.

Think about things like:

  • Client behaves improperly.
  • Client arrives to an appointment under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
  • If you feel unsafe.

Sickness & Covid-19

In the current environment, it’s prudent to have a health policy for Client service arrivals.

You may decide to have a sickness policy where you required clients to cancel or reschedule if they are unwell on the day of their appointment.

Facilities Policy

Do you have the ability to provide refreshments, toilet facilities, tea/coffee, changing rooms etc.

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Tutorial – How to make spoolies in tubes. (Mascara Wands)

All you need are some test tubes, spoolies and you’re all the bash. You don’t need fancy button tops, although a spot of glue and a cabochon of the right size from a craft shop would do the business, as would raffia, wrapping or even just a pretty button or crystal that fits in the top. The ones from the list above from Amazon, are just spoolies pushed through the cap of a test tube.

I wrote about this already, but here is a wee tutorial to follow.


  • Mascara Wands (Spoolies) (Lash Brushes)
  • Scissors
  • 10cm Test Tubes
  • Lids for Test Tubes


Push Scissors through lid and twist in a 360 degree circle, to make a little hole.
Push spoolie end firmly through the hole in the cap. It will be fairly solid if you are using a small pair of scissors.
That’s it. Spoolies done, and keeping your clients giveaway spoolies dust and bacteria free.
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Mascara Wands in Tubes

You know what I mean. They’re everywhere on Etsy, Amazon and E-Bay, and that’s not the only places to find them. Before you click buy, really do shop around or consider making your own.

The idea of putting mascara wands in tubes really kicked off during the Covid pandemic, when it became essentional to show our products as bug and virus free as possible. Yes, I know that therapists, sanitise, deodorise, wash, sanitise again, disinfect and often sterilise as well. But our clients don’t see all that, especially during eyelash treatments.

Clients also like a wee giveaway. It makes them feel just a little special when they leave lash chairs and beds. We’ve tended to buy our mascara wands in bulk packs generally, and then take one out at a time as part of our aftercare for clients in the real world, so adding some packaging that doesn’t cost the earth is important, especially since our materials costs have now gone up in price, as well as the price of heat, light and PPE.

Many therapists have switched to using test tubes as a way to keep their mascara wands clean and tidy and safe to hand over to clients.

There are several options.

Ready Made Mascara Wands in Tubes. Remember that marketplaces can have very high postage prices that far outweight the cost of manufacture, and aren’t always the best options. Some examples below. They may be the right decision for you.

Why not make your own. You can read how to in my Putting Spoolies into Tubes tutorial.

All you need are some test tubes, spoolies and you’re all the bash. You don’t need fancy button tops, although a spot of glue and a cabochon of the right size from a craft shop would do the business, as would raffia, wrapping or even just a pretty button or crystal that fits in the top. The ones from the list above from Amazon, are just spoolies pushed through the cap of a test tube.

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Media Kits for Hair Stylists, Beauty Therapists and Holistics Professionals

We tend to hear about media kits as more for bloggers and online professionals, but there are many situations where therapists, stylists, beauty and aesthetics professionals might need to have a media kit that can be used to promote themselves and their businesses.

If your business is picked up in the news, or you want to be shared on bloggers websites, having your own media kit, can make another business decide whether to work with you or not. It’s not all just about making your own way in the world.

Why have a media kit?

The media kit contains information about your, your business, your services and any events that you decide to hold. The information in the media kit, can help journalists, bloggers and your niche writers, to write a story about you. In short, having a media kit you can quickly tailor and amend, makes it makes it easier for you to be featured, that it is for other businesses in your area.

A media kit is usually in digital format these days, and can be either downloadable and sent to interested parties, or viewable online.

Use a media kit to:

  • Send to local newspapers and journalists to tell them about yourself.
  • To send to your media and bloggers, to decide if they want to work with you on future collaborations.
  • Advertising your media kit on your website, helps brands decide if you have enough followers and exposure to include you in press releases, for sponsored content and samples.

What is in a media kit?

This depends on you, however the basics are usually.

  • Who you are, and what you do.
  • Your contact details.
  • A short biography.
  • Some relevant imagery in low resolution images that journalists or bloggers can contact you for high quality images if they decide to use your information.
  • Your social media user names and follower counts.
  • Your website page and unique views.
  • Your website subscribers or mailing list subscribers.
  • If you are publicising an event, add some details to your media kit.
  • Think about adding a testimonial. If you use a template, you can change the media kit to suit each need you have for it, and not be stuck with simply one version that you can’t change.
  • Any awards, or publications or media you have been featured in.
  • Interesting things about you or your business, ie any unique selling points that you have.
  • If you are offering a free service, such as a new hair style or beauty treatment, ensure you send personalised media kits in PDF format to those receiving and stated as non transferrable, otherwise, you might end up with your offer sent out to many other people.

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Tutorial: How To Change The Canva Template Size

For many of the templates you can find here, it is very simple to change the size of the template to suit what you are looking for. While I have included a few templates with A4, A5 and A6 sizes, it is fairly simple to have Canva change the size you need, while also keeping everything in the right proportions. Obviously, that applies to landscape to landscape and portrait to portrait sizes.

If you plan to take a landscape document and make it portrait and vice versa, you might find yourself with a headache, as there will be manual changes needed.

Here’s How to Change the Template Sizes

  1. In Canva, open your template, the take your cursor and click the resize menu button along the top bar, which is in blue on the right hand side of the image above.
  2. Change the width and height to suit what you need. This is an A5 size at 210mm x 148mm. If you change that to 148mm x 105mm, you will find the template automatically changes to A6 when you click button below it that says Copy & resize. It’s that simple.
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Nails Aftercare Advice Leaflet

Lovely leaflet with the follow on information for your clients. Tailor the information to suit what you are looking for in your own business/salon, whether you work for yourself, in a salon, mobile or own your own salon. Everyone needs great paperwork to back up their services.

Some of the following aftercare advice is common sense, but it does help to have it added to your consultation form, that you have discussed this with your client, and they have taken away your aftercare advice and signed for it on the consultation form. If you don’t have a spot for this on your consultation form, just add it at the bottom and have your client sign for it.

NB: Always ensure you follow the aftercare advice you were taught in your course, and replace the wording in the document to suit the needs of your business, treatment, insurance and training. We are not responsible for your not amending the template to match your business, training and insurance needs.

The nails aftercare form is in five different colours with representative images. We have purple, blue, pink, green and red in the template, which is fully customisable within a free account on Canva. These make sure you never run out of aftercare leaflets again.

All you need to do, is change the text to suit your business, save the format to your own computer in whichever method and size you wish, then simply print off when you need them. If you want to be extra special, put the name of each client on the form. How impressive would that be?

General Aftercare Advice for nails.

  • Do be careful with your nails.
  • If you look after them, they will stay pretty. If you have extensions, they are still bonding for the first 24-48 hours.
  • DO apply cuticle oil twice a day to keep your nails in tip top condition. Your nail technicial will have a good quality oil for sale.
  • DO wear gloves when cleaning up, washing dishes and doing household chores.
  • DO protect your hands and nails when using chlorine or using fake tan.
  • DON’T pick at the polish or your nails, you will break the seal, as well as damage your lovely natural nail underneath.
  • DO keep up your appointments for infills or removal if you wish to keep your nailbed and nail underneath healthy.
  • DON’T use bleach and other chemicals.